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This article may contain an excessive amount of intricate detail that may interest only a particular audience. X-SAR radar on board the Space Shuttle Endeavour shows the Teide volcano. The city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife is visible as the purple and white area on the lower right edge of the island. SAR uses the motion of the radar antenna over a target region to provide finer spatial resolution than conventional beam-scanning radars.
To create a SAR image, successive pulses of radio waves are transmitted to “illuminate” a target scene, and the echo of each pulse is received and recorded. The pulses are transmitted and the echoes received using a single beam-forming antenna, with wavelengths of a meter down to several millimeters. The properties of SAR can be described as having high-resolution capability, which is independent of flight altitude, not being dependent on the weather, as SAR can select proper frequency range. SAR also have a great day and night imaging capability considering their own illumination. SAR images have wide applications in remote sensing and mapping of the surfaces of both the Earth and other planets. This section needs expansion with: a short description of the general functional principle of SAR, with illustrative images.
You can help by adding to it. A synthetic-aperture radar is an imaging radar mounted on a moving platform. Electromagnetic waves are transmitted sequentially, the echoes are collected and the system electronics digitizes and stores the data for subsequent processing. As transmission and reception occur at different times, they map to different positions. The 3D processing is done in two stages. In addition, multiple baselines can be used to extend 3D imaging to the time dimension. The SAR algorithm, as given here, generally applies to phased arrays.